Iodine’s function is as a constituent of thyroxin, a thyroid gland hormone that regulates the basal metabolic rate. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, enhances the iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Short-term deficiency leads to hypothyroidism, with reduced growth rate and reproductive problems, hair loss, and dry skin. Long-term deficiency leads to goiter. Without iodine, thyroxin cannot be synthesized. This causes the release of TSH, which in turn causes the hypertrophy of the thyroid gland.